Increasing Awareness & Building Capacity of Urban Malaysians on Sustainable Energy Options

A 3-year Awareness and Capacity Building Project funded by UNDP/GEF SGP

ABC Project

[ Background | Objectives | Methodology | Comments | Results | Diary of Events ]


The Kyoto Protocol arising from the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aims at reducing the amount of Greenhouse Gases [GHGs] emitted by developed nations. Under the Protocol developed countries notably Japan, Germany, United States of America and other countries are obliged to reduce the amount of their GHG emissions over the period 2008-2012. Malaysia is not obliged to reduce these gases.

As the third largest per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter among the ten ASEAN nations, Malaysia has a responsibility to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions from all sectors, including urban households. Hence to reduce the GHGs effectively, it is essential to build the energy consumption profile of the domestic sector. Interestingly, assessing the energy consumption of Malaysian urban households has not been a common activity.


A comprehensive energy consumption profile of Malaysian urban households can help decision makers and industrial players understand domestic energy needs. Subsequently, decision makers can employ more energy efficient policies.

As a move towards this, the Awareness & Building Capacity of Sustainable Energy Lifestyles among Urban Households project (ABC) funded by the UNDP Global Environmental Facility (GEF) aims to build the capacity and raise the awareness of a range of urban Malaysians to assess their energy uses and motivate them to reduce such usage to sustainable levels so that their climate change ecological footprints are reduced.

It built upon the previously completed project on Public Awareness on Energy Efficiency (EE) & Renewable Energy (RE) in 1999 as well as the project on Mobilising Malaysians on Climate Change (MMCC).


The purpose of this project is to make urban Malaysians more aware of the potential for sustainable energy usage and to act to reduce their ecological footprints in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, through renewable energy and energy efficiency.

The target was to get energy audit completed by 500 households, in 5 different Malaysian towns.


Malaysians will be exposed to the potential for sustainable energy usage and will be guided to act to reduce their energy consumption.

CETDEM plans to do this by:

- exposing and building the capacity of Malaysians from various sectors, especially urban households, towards the potential of sustainable energy usage, through energy efficiency, as well as of renewable energy usage in the country;
- facilitating discussions on how best to increase public awareness and action in this critical area;
- developing a citizens system for assessing progress in sustainable energy usage and conservation at the local community and other levels.

Five towns across Malaysia will be involved, namely Petaling Jaya, Kuching, Kuantan, Ipoh and Kota Kinabalu. Urban Malaysians will also be better informed and better equipped with the information and the tools to play their part in reducing their adverse impacts on climate change and unsustainable energy usage.

We had two facilitators from each town working with CETDEM on this project.

Click to enlarge Energy Audit Form 1

For the baseline data, Phase I involved individuals in the different towns/areas directly contacting the households and getting them to complete Form I in the project manual.

In Phase II, the forms were completed by the households under the supervision of the Project Leader during the end of Briefings held in the 4 different towns. In both cases, a maximum discrepancy of 10% was allowed between the total electricity calculated and that on the electricity bill.


The project had to be modified to overcome problems that arose over time. Although the initial target was to get 500 households, in 5 different Malaysian towns, actively involved in all stages of the project, the final results that are produced in this Report covered baseline energy consumption data from 238 households from 9 towns/areas. The data on energy conservation measures actually was limited to Phase I and even then was no comprehensive.

It was neither possible nor intended to make actual measurements of each individual appliance energy consumption in each home. Where actual wattages were not known, householders were asked to choose from a range of ratings for each group of appliances provided by the project.


1. A citizens manual has been developed to help urban households reduce their energy consumption. This manual provides information and options on how to reduce energy consumption and adopt better practices.

2. Briefings were organised and held in (Phase I) Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching and Kudat, followed (by Phase II) Malacca, Penang, Johor and Miri. Those involved in the project have completed energy audits on their homes. This has given them an idea of how much energy is being consumed in the home.

3. A report of the audits from 238 homes.

4. An Interactive CD has been produced. This Interactive CD which will help in the conducting of home energy audits.

Energy Consumption Patterns

Energy Consumption Breakdown (Phase I)

Energy Consumption Breakdown (Phase II)

Overall Energy Consumption Breakdown

Click to enlarge Average Energy Consumption Data

Note: The output of this project was fed into the DDC and WCPJ projects.

Diary of Events

Date Event
1 April 2003 Project Begins
April 2003 to June 2004 Planning & Preparation
July 2004 to Feb 2005 Phase I:
Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching and Kudat

127 responses were collected:
- Kuala Lumpur (48);
- Selangor (32);
- Kudat (21);
- Kota Kinabalu (10); and
- Kuching (16).

July to Oct 2005 Phase II:
Malacca, Penang, Johor and Miri

111 responses were collected:
- Malacca (22);
- Penang (31);
- Johor (25); and
- Miri (33).

30 June 2006 Project Ends

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