A 12-month Awareness and Capacity Building Project funded by Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment
Household energy consumption patterns is an area of research which has been largely ignored. CETDEM is the only Malaysian NGO that has done such studies, through the DDC, ABC and WCPJ Projects.
Results from WCPJ Project
CETDEM developed the CACCET project as a follow-up to the WCPJ Project. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE) was approached in early 2007. The CACCET Project is listed as one of the projects commissioned by NRE under the Ninth Malaysia Plan (RMK9).
CETDEM had begun assessing the energy consumption of Malaysian urban households through the pioneering ABC project (under the UNDP/GEF Small Grants Project) which started on 1st April 2003 and continued through 2004 to 2006. The ABC project was followed by the WCPJ project (Working with the Community on Energy Efficiency at household level in Petaling Jaya) which involved the participation of 50 households residing within the jurisdiction of Petaling Jaya City Council in a year-long study across 2006.
The findings of the ABC project were published in January 2006 in a report entitled “Malaysian Urban Household Energy Consumption Patterns” while the WCPJ project findings were published in December 2006.
Based on the ABC and WCPJ Projects, CETDEM approached the Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment to continue with another study, but instead of just talking about Energy Efficiency, there would be the added emphasis of linking Climate Change to Energy usage and Transport. Two resource persons, a project coordinator and a field officer (both part time), would managed the CACCET project.
The objectives of CACCET:
a. develop an energy consumption profile; &
b. analise attitudes to use of public transport
for two large urban communities of Kajang and Petaling Jaya, both located in the state of Selangor.
Participation would be sought from 20 households each in Kajang and Petaling Jaya. These participating households would be instructed on how to become more efficient energy users. They would also be encouraged to increase usage of public transport as a local solution to address the issue of Climate Change.
For the baseline data, the Energy Audit and Transport Survey Forms were to be completed by the households after being briefed on the linkage Climate Change to Energy consumption and Transport. This would provide a glimpse at the energy consumption profile for two large urban communities of Kajang and Petaling Jaya as well as their attitudes to use of public transport.
1. Outline of Activities
The CACCET Project Team comprised of a Project Leader and a Field Officer, both part-time.
Project Team was to liaise with Local Authorities to engage Citizen’s Groups through a series of awareness briefings. From these briefings, 20 households each in Kajang and Petaling Jaya would be invited to participate in field studies on household energy consumption with emphasis on private transport usage. The household energy consumption patterns/profile would include electricity, gas and also petrol usage for vehicles. RapidKL would be consulted on their routes and services for these 2 towns.
2. Engaging the Stakeholders
- Participating households from Kajang and Petaling Jaya;
- Local Authority in Kajang, Majlis Perbandaran Kajang (MPKj);
- Local Authority in Petaling Jaya, Majlis Bandaraya Petaling Jaya (MBPJ); and
- Public Transport Operator (RapidKL)
In April 2007, the Field Officer sent letters to the YDP of MPKj and Mayor of MBPJ to introduce the project and invite their participation. The Field Officer contacted and met with officers from the two Local Authorities concerned. Their initial response was encouraging. However, these briefings did not take place when both Local Authorities suddenly lost interest in the project. Contact was then made directly with a few leaders of Residents Associations (RAs) in Kajang and Petaling Jaya.
The Project Team met with the RapidKL CEO in May 2007 followed by a meeting between the Project Field Officer and the Management Team of RapidKL.
3. The Official Launch
The Official Launch was held on 26th May 2007 at Hotel Malaya KL. The event was attended by representatives from NRE, RapidKL as well as CETDEM Board members. A briefing on Climate Change and the linkages to Energy use and Transport was presented by the CACCET Project Leader. MPKj, MBPJ, and RAs were not represented although they were invited.
The original approach was not working, thus participation was extended to non-RA groups, which included the Baha’i community in Petaling Jaya and Buddhist Society in Kajang.
A series of briefings were held in collaboration with the various Citizens Groups in Kajang and Petaling Jaya.
Briefing with DJROA participants
These briefings had a four fold purpose:
a. Better understanding of Climate Change and the linkage to Energy consumption and Transport;
b. How to do an Energy Audit;
c. The need for good and reliable public transport; and,
d. Invite participation in CACCET.
Project participation forms were distributed during the briefings and those who signed up were provided with a brochure “Transport: Where are we headed?” together with the Energy Audit and Transport Survey Forms which were to be filled and returned to CETDEM at a later agreed date.
5. Official Closing Ceremony
The Official Closing Ceremony was held on 26th January 2008 at Hotel Armada Petaling Jaya, attended by representatives of NRE, RapidKL, participants from Kajang and Petaling Jaya, as well as CETDEM Board members. No representatives from MPKj or MBPJ were present.
Project Leader speaking to guests
The Project Leader spoke on the challenges faced during the project which included:
a. Change of NRE officer in charge at the beginning of the project.
b. Lack of interest/support shown by MPKj and MBPJ.
c. Delay in having briefing sessions.
d. Small number of completed Energy Audit and Transport Survey Forms received.
e. Short study period.
The Field Officer gave a presentation on the results of the Audit and Survey.
Project Leader giving souvenirs to participants
The Project Leader presented souvenirs to participants who had completed and submitted the Energy Audit and Transport Survey Forms during the course of the project.
Feedback from those who attended the briefings:
- a better understanding of Climate Change;
- surprise at the long term effects and possible impacts;
- could see linkage between Climate Change, Energy use and Transport;
- Climate Change to be a subject addressed in schools.
What occasions do you normally choose to use car/motorbike?
- going out with the family
- traveling with young children
- sending kids to baby-sitter & school
What occasions do you normally choose to use public transportation (bus/train)?
- destination is jam-prone area and place where parking is difficult/scarce
- informal occasions eg. Shopping, informal get-together
- trips outstation with wife
strong>What occasions do you prefer NOT to use public transportation?
- attending formal functions eg. weddings, social
- going out with family (with young children)
- going out grocery shopping at hypermarkets or wet market
What are the reasons for not using public transportation?
- buses which don’t come on time
- no direct bus to the required destination
- save time to go by car rather than wait for the bus
What can be done to improve public transportation
- provide more LRT carriages during the morning and evening peak hours
- have adequate parking at LRT stations for people to park and ride
- improve availability of information about routes and stops for buses, especially to/from LRT stations
Specific suggestions from Kajang residents
- Place bus stop sign posts along major routes to indicate where bus is supposed to stop
- Build bus station at Taman Bukit Mewah phase 6,7
- bus routes are too long – a trip to downtown takes too long, about 75 mins compared to 30mins to Kota Raya from Sg Long (by car) – re-look at the length of the route
Specific suggestions from PJ residents
- increase number of bus routes from PJ. In the past, mini buses used to go to Chow Kit/Jalan TAR and Intrakota used to go to Jalan Bukit Bintang, Jalan Imbi.
Ranking of attributes when choosing to use public transport:
Ranking: 5 – Extremely Important, 1 – Not Important at all
a. Reliable/on time services 5.0
b. Sufficient frequency 5.0
c. Good connectivity between bus/train 5.0
d. Convenience, in & out of city 4.8
e. Vehicles well maintained 4.8
Response from RapidKL representatives to the participants’ feedback:
- Ownership: RapidKL is owned by Ministry of Finance;
- Single Public Transport Agency: RapidKL is one of 18 public transport operators serving Kuala Lumpur;
- Low usage of public transport: Only 20% of commuters in the Klang Valley use public transport;
- Location of bus-stops: Buses are 12m long and can only ply main roads;
- Routes are too long: Design of routes depends on the approval given by the Local Authority;
- Different categories of buses for different usage: Tempatan, Utama, Bandaraya & Express;
- Reliability of service: Service depends on physical road condition as well as traffic congestion.
- Lack of trained bus drivers: Need to employ additional 700 drivers;
- Difficulties in planning a trip: A web-based journey planner to be provided soon; and
- Shortaqe of locally supplied buses: To be imported from China;
A total of 49 application forms were received by the Project Team
- 20 forms from Kajang
- 29 forms from Petaling Jaya
Eventually, 10 households each from Kajang and Petaling Jaya completed the Energy Audit forms and Transport Survey. The main reasons participants dropped out were heavy work and family commitments.
Energy Consumption Patterns
Click to enlarge: Average Energy Consumption Breakdown
Click to enlarge: Average Electricity Consumption Breakdown
Click to enlarge: Average Fuel Consumption by House Type
Click to enlarge: Average Gas Consumption by House Type
Greenhouse Gas emission per Capita
WCPJ: 3,721 kg
CACCET: 3,907 kg
- Kajang 3,862 kg,
- Petaling Jaya 3,952 kg
Based on the findings from CACCET and WCPJ, the GHG emissions from an urban household is just below 4,000 kg per Capita.
Diary of Events
Date Event 1 April 2007 Project Begins 27 June Briefing – Section 4A Rukun Tetangga , Petaling Jaya (7) 9 July Briefing – Sungai Long Buddhist Society, Bandar Sungai Long, Kajang (8) 22July Briefing – Baha’i Community of Petaling Jaya (20) 5th Aug Briefing – Damansara Jaya Residents and Owners Association, Petaling Jaya (8) 9 Sept Briefing – the Buddhist Missionary Society Malaysia, Kajang (19) 9 July Briefing – Sungai Long Buddhist Society, Bandar Sungai Long, Kajang (8) 26 Jan 2008 Official Closing Ceremony at Hotel Armada Petaling Jaya
Field Officer giving presentation
29 Feb 2008 Project Ends